PRESEAN
(Dok Hilmi Zaini 25/09/19)

Author : Jamaluddin, S.Pd.

Indonesia is a nation composed with thousands of islands. Among those, there are some big islands like Sumatra, Kalimantan, Java, Sulawesi, Halmahera, and Papua. Some small islands are Sabang, Bangka, Belitung, Bali, Rote, Lombok, etc. Those islands are inhibited by people of different ethnic groups, religions, languages, habits, and culture.

Baca juga : Kekuatan Terbesar dari Cinta

Lombok island which is in the east of Bali island has a traditional sport culture names presean. Presean is a fight game as the symbol of masculinity of Sasaknes man in Lombok. This game is a battle of two men armed with rattan sticks in Sasak language called Penjalin and a shield made of thick and hard buffalo skin called Ende. The upper ends of the rattan covered by asphalt mixed with soft blended glass. The two fighters armed with “Penjalin” will  attack each other, defending their opponent’s blows with Ende. The fighters, in local Lombok language “Sasak” called Pepadu. They come from selected brave and gentle man who just wearing ‘sarung” and headband without any clothes or other body and face protectors. There is “Pakembar”, the referee of the game.

The Sasaknese Presean cultural is already known from generations to generations, originally as a part of traditional ceremony of the soldiers’ happiness in Lombok Kingdom when they get won in a war. At first, Presean was conducted by using sword and a rounded shield. It was to show the invulnerable and the vigorous of the knight and warrior. Since using the sword induced death and bring about to the less of the warriors, then the sword changed to rattan stick and intended only for entertainment.

Baca juga :  Menjadi Pendidik yang Berkarakter

Presean also performed as a ritual ceremony to invoke the rain as drought comes. As well as its historic associations, the fight serves to ask God for rain for the imminent planting season with the ancient belief being that the more blood spilled, the more rain would follow. It will bring about fertility and welfare for the people.

 

As the time goes, nowadays, presean shifted to become part of tradition and culture  entertainment in Lombok. It is performed in Indonesian Independence Day (August 17th, 1945), Lombok districts’ and subdistricts’ birthday  and welcoming the guests in a special event or cultural entertainment in a tourism spot, performed in Bulan Apresiasi Budaya (BAB) as government program to introduce Lombok’s culture to general tourist society and one week perform on Senggigi Festival in July.

 

Presean attraction also accompanied by Lombok traditional music called “Beleganjur” (consists of gong, gendang, flute) and a commentator giving spirit to the fighters. Uniquely in Presean, the participants or Pepadu had never been specially prepared. Pakembar (referee) can even request visitors or audience to participate, toying with rattan sticks and shields provided. The audience or prospective participants can propose themselves or be selected by the edge referee and fight with other visitor or those selected fighters. Duel of the two pepadus held in five rounds in which three minutes for each round. The winner is determined by the more results obtained value or one of pepadu leaky head. Referee will stop the game if the fighter get blood even they still strong enough to fight. All consequences caused in the game is on own risk of fighter even though there is very simple emergency medical treatment.

The winner awarded with packed of cigarette, body soap and shampoo  or an envelope  with small amount of money. There is no big reward actually for the winner but young man who like this game to express their spirit also as a manifest of love to Lombok culture.

Baca juga : SOFT POWER yang menang dalam kekalahan

Regulation (called awik-awik) of Presean fighting is very simple. The fighter (pepadu) should not hit part below of his opponent’s stomach (thigh, leg, groin and penis). The highest value is obtained if fighter (pepadu) successful embezzlement until down. Interestingly on the sidelines of the battle, both pepadus and the referees have to dance when traditional music played. Maybe its intention to release the tension during the game. It is such a lovely attraction, while the fighters scuffled with each other, a few seconds later they were dancing, laughing to cheer up the spectators, a second later hit hard rattan shields, plaques, then they dance again. The match end with greetings and hugs of friendship between the fighters. No sign of resentment and all just a game! It’s really casual.

The Values of Presean

  1. As a manifestation of self restrain and aesthetics

Pepadu is the men who is able to control himself. When fight, both pepadu (presean fighter) face his opponent with a powerful, deadly hit with all his ability  to strike and defense at the same time, like a professional fighter. But when the referee sounds the whistle, both pepadu should not strike each other. The referee and pepadus dance aesthetically, sometimes in a funny way to cheer up the spectators when the music played. After the fight ends, both pepadu nod and smile to each other, shake hands, hug each other in a friendly way. There is no hatred and hostility even one gets leaky head.

  1. As an Actualization of Sportsmanship and Heroism

Pepadu is a man who fight like a knight in a war. He has to show his braveness, fight brawnily, and truthfully. Tarung presean is a culture symbolizes sasak man masculinity to test his braveness and heroism. Only the braves can show heroism and are allowed and able to fight. If you are an afraid one, don’t try it.

Pepadu has to hold in the high esteem honesty and sportsmanship.  The fighter (pepadu) should not hitting below the  opponent’s stomach (thigh, leg, let alone the groin). When referee (pekembar) blows the whistle, the fighters should stop hitting each other and fight again when pekembar blows the whistle as a sign to fight again. The looser is the leaky head. When fight till the end and the judges (the judges are two edge pengadok – the man who propose who will fight against whom, and the referee (pekembar)) decide who is the winner, the looser has to admit it. No resentment, they respects and honor each other.

In brief, Presean is Lombok Traditional sport descended from generations to generations. It is a fight of two men using rattan stick and shield made of thick cow or buffalo skin. There is a simple law (awik-awik) when playing. Pepadu (fighter) is not allowed to hit part below the stomach. Fighter can hit waist, chest, even head. At the beginning, presean in Lombok was performed to show soldiers’ happiness when they get won in a war. It was also to show the invulnerable and the vigorousness of the knight and warrior. In the dry season, it is held to invoke the God for rain for the imminent planting season with the belief that the more blood spilled, the more rain would follow. When the fight ends, both pepadus, the winner and the looser, have to show friendship, no resentment, no hostility, and respects and honor each other.

As the time changed, presean attraction shifted to as a part of tradition and culture entertainment even for economic reason. It is performed to welcoming Indonesian Independence Day, performed in Bulan Apresiasi Budaya (BAB) as government program to introduce Lombok’s culture, welcoming special guests, as a cultural entertainment in a tourism spot, and one week perform in Senggigi Festival on July.

 Readings :

Asharil, Lalu Hasan, etc., 2020, Mengeksplorasi Olahraga Permainan Tradisional Presean ( Studi kasus Permainan Tradisional Presean di Desa Marong), NUSRA: Jurnal Penelitian dan Ilmu Pendidikan Volume 1, Issue 1.

Rajab, B. Abdus Somad, etc., 2018, Perancangan Game Fighting Peresean Sebagai Media Pengenalan Budaya Suku Sasak, Jurnal Teknologi Informasi.

Solikatun, etc., 2018, Eksistensi  Seni  Pertunjukan  Peresean  pada Masyarakat Sasak Lombok, Jurnal Kajian Sosial Keagamaan.

Yasa, I Made Ardika, 2020, Nilai-Nilai Pendidikan dalam Budaya Tarung Presean di Lombok barat (Perspektif Agama Hindu, Jayapangus Press Volume 4 Nomor 1.

Zaini, Hilmi, 2021, Perancangan Buku Etnografi Budaya Presean Lombok, Jurnal Pendidikan Seni Rupa-FKIP – Universitas Sarjanawiyata Tamansiswa Yogyakarta.